Volume 1, number 1
Center for Human Rights Studies
Editor In Chief:
Masoud Moosavi karimi
Mohammad Hossein Sabouri
Human Rights and Human Cloning ……………………………...……… 7
Human Rights and Human Function ……………………………….….. 23
Theory of Right – Duty ………………………………………………..….. 33
Freedom; Ancient and Moodern ……………………………………..…. 53
Minu Agha’ee Khuzani
“I” and “Self” from a Philosophical Point of View …………………. 67
Basic Differences and Shared Human Rights …………………….….. 81
S. Hassan Hosseini(Akhlagh)
Women’s Identity in Christianity …………………………………...… 103
Human Rights and Human Cloning
Some opponents of human cloning regard it as wrong and unethical from a human rights perspective giving some reasons to prove their view. One is that each human being has the right to have his/her own human identity and individuality distinct from other individuals, but human cloning is a violation of this natural right for two reasons: firstly, the identity of a human being which is created through a nonsexual process will be damaged never thereafter he/she being regarded as a complete human being. This is obviously a violation of his/her human rights. Secondly, a human being created through cloning is merely a “copy” of some one else and this is a violation of his/her right to be unique and different. Hence, from a human rights perspective, human cloning violates man’s rights due to two reasons: damage of human identity and violation of the right to be unique.
Attempting to clarify the nature of human cloning, this article examines the aspects to be claimed to violate human rights and evaluates the strength of the reasons for this claim.
Key words: uman Rights, Human Cloning, Human Identity, the Right to be Different.
Human Rights and Human Function
This paper firstly explores some theories of Human Rights justification and then assents to the theory that Human Rights is based on justified moral values. In order to justify moral values, Aristotle’s approach called “Function Argument” is reviewed. Propounding this argument, the writer attempts to show that all analysis of human identity will directly contribute to the man’s view of his rights. Not only Human rights is really determined by human function or human distinguishing characteristic i.e. human identity, but in the world of knowledge the proper method to know human rights is to know human being himself.
Key words: uman rights, moral values, argument of function, human identity.
Theory of Right – Duty
Studying the history of philosophic thoughts, one finds out that more attention has been paid to “right” than its opposite term, “duty”. However, this issue has little been under discussion that if a single person comes to be subject to right and duty simultaneously or if ‘right’ is the only way to carry out duty, then how we can analyze the relations between right – duty holder and those who claim he is under obligation. The theory of right – duty tries to analyze this situation giving answers to the questions arise in this area. The impact of this theory on the responsibility of the government vis-à-vis the citizens is going to be under discussion too.
Key words: Philosophy of Right, Theory of Right – Duty, Division of Rights, Theory of Responsible Government and Human Rights.
Freedom; Ancient and Moodern
Minu Agha’ee Khuzani
Modern conceptions of freedom are developed in the new intellectual trends among religious scholars the relations between freedom and concepts such as religion, justice, truth and government being differently explained. Introducing these conceptions this article attempts to make clear the distinction between them and the ancient ones, and at the same time, to show that different views of freedom stem from more basic differences regarding: human being, the elements making his humanity, his ability to determine the face and character of his life, his capability to exercise his freedoms, his expectations from religion, the possibility of knowing truth its instruments and obstacles , the government and its relationship with the individual and above all, fundamental human rights.
Key words: Freedom, Religion, Law, Right, Freedom of Belief.
“I” and “Self” from a Philosophical Point of View
(Up to the Beginning of the Seventeenth Century)
Does self-knowledge originate from our body and external characteristics or are the internal characteristics, human and individual characters involved as well? How do others know us? What are the shared criteria of self-knowledge and knowing others? It is here that self-perception is related to self-knowledge and the perception of “other”. In this article in addition to the above questions, we are going to answer the following questions: if, for example, we accept the principle: “existence is perception” (Esse est percipi) or if, we accept Barkley’s view that existence is “the thing perceived” then what is “I” and “self” when we say “I have right” or “This is mine” or “I know myself”? Whether we reject the existence of “matter” believing in appearance or appearance without reality, or accept the existence of matter and materialism believing in body in the shape of human body as his being and existence, we must, prior to this, show where to predicate the “right” belonging to “I”. Which schools of thought and scholars have put forward “I”? And is it possible to define it philosophically?
Key words: dentity, I, Self.
Basic Differences and Shared Human Rights
S. Hassan Hosseini(Akhlagh)
While human beings are of unity as human beings, they live in some sort of plurality (in terms of their believes, interests, races, languages, etc) both being inevitable realities.
Do human beings have shared rights to be called Human Rights despite of all the differences they have? Is Human Rights compatible with plural views and characters in human societies? On the other hand, mystical and religious attitudes have always divided human beings into different groups seeming, at first glance, not to have shared rights
Accepting each of these attitudes, how can one believe in “fundamental Human Rights”?
In this article in order to respond to these questions, the view points of two influential figures from the East and the West will be reviewed: Mulavi and Nietzsche
Key words: ulavi, Nietzsche, Difference, Human Rights.
Women’s Identity in Christianity
In the modern era, identity and identity-finding are influenced by three trends: modernism, post modernism and trans-post modernism. In each trend, a specific approach towards the issue of identity is seen. This article first deals with each of the three trends as well as their impact on the issue of identity, particularly women’s identity and then reviews the picture presented from women’s identity and rights in the Bible (the Old Testament and the New Testament)
Key words: dentity, Identity-finding, Christianity, Women’s rights.